|Over 600 Foreigners
Smooth Transfer of Technolog
|Over 600 Foreigners|
|On November 15, 1873, a lone Frenchman arrived at the port of Yokohama, a month and a half after departing from Paris. His name: Bruno Louis Larroque (18361883). The 39 year-old Frenchman was commissioned by Saihei Hirose (18281914), manager of the Besshi mine, to modernize the mine. Larroques arrival was greatly anticipated.
Larroque came to Japan in a time of tremendous change. The country was in the process of developing a centralized government and market economy. In Part VI of this series, we explained how Sumitomos operations were affected by these turbulent times, and how the Besshi mine was plagued by problems similar to those faced by most mines of its age, resulting from years of mining activity. These included difficulties in procuring fuel and other mining resources, lower grades of ore, and increased water seepage as mineshafts grew deeper.
In September 1871, Hirose had received an appointment penned directly by Tomochika Sumitomo (18431890), the 12th Sumitomo patriarch, that entrusted him with the authority to modernize the Besshi mine. At that time, commissioning a foreigner was a lengthy and complicated process, one that took over two years for Hirose to complete. Hirose submitted an application to the national government, consulted with a French company located in Yokohama about whom to choose, visited Tokyo to implore government officials to approve the application, and held repeated negotiations to reach a contractual agreement.
Sumitomo was not alone in calling on a foreign national to effect modernization.
Japans government invited hundreds of foreign nationals in an effort to hasten the process of modernization by acquiring advanced knowledge and technologies directly. Foreigners were offered handsome salaries to advise on politics, economics, law, military, industry, education, and other areas of vital importance to a modern nation. Known as Oyatoi Gaikokujin in Japanese, these advisors came primarily from England, Germany, France, and the United States. During the two years of 1874 and 1875, roughly the same time that Larroque was in Japan, the national government employed 520 advisors. Adding those employed by prefectural governments and private enterprises, this number grows to over 600.